Best to be planted in tropical areas. It has colorful, large and very delicious to eat. It has rounded canopy, low in height, dense foliage upright with branches uniformly structured.
Well-adapted in sub-tropical and lowland tropical environment. Dropping of temperature during rainy season may affect the growth of small branches, twigs and leaves of the plant. If the temperature to drop even more, the flowering and fruiting of the tree will be severely affected and damaged. It can tolerate normal winter season.
Mango tree will grow in its natural state as long as there in good drainage system in the field. Too much water in the soil can be drained out of the field. What remains is the soil moisture enough only on the growing plants. Too much exposure to water will give the soil-borne disease to take advantage and prosper.
The best soil type noted to give mango the liberty to grow unhampered, robust and health if it is sandy loam soil or any other type of soil that has enough organic matter (compost, manure).
The mango tree can tolerate minor flooding in temporary nature. The only weakness of mango tree is soil that is acidic and composition. Its sensitivity to extreme cold put mango to a halt but once the weather condition is good under full sun or during dry season, the tree will recover and kick a new start.
There are many varieties of mango. The best variety grown by commercial growers is carabao mango. It has thin skin, perfectly formed in medium size, the sweetest of all the sweets if fully ripe. It has better eating quality, higher yield and strong sweet aroma. The color will begin to be heavy green then light green and in full maturity (ripe) is yellow. They are susceptible to many soil-borne diseases but it can be controlled as long as action be done immediately to treat the first sign of disease. It is only a matter of management habit to care the plants properly and religiously.
The best propagating materials to raise mango is through grafting. It can be done after there are enough seedling rootstocks from any mango variety whose root system is hard and well-structured.
The first step is to prepare seedling root stocks. Procure seeds from any variety, grow them in the nursery. The seeds were placed in the polybags of enough size. Let them grow until they can attain the required size to become rootstocks. This is then grafted to the scion of the carabao mango until the process of grafting is finish, careful management should be observed until the attachment is fully healed and the scion will start growing new leaves and branches dependent on the rootstocks of other kind of mango.
The advantage of grafted mango is that it can grow fast and beat fruits in earliest possible time. In the planting the seeds as rootstocks, the pit (fibrous stone) should be removed from the seeds. The seeds are planted where in concave edge should be down an inch deep in the potting medium. Use good kinds of soil to avoid stunted growth.
It will germinate two to three weeks. It needs 6 months to have enough grafted seedlings when the diameter of the plant will reach quarter of an inch.
Spacing should be 12 feet x 15 feet between trees to give enough nobility of the trees to have its natural foliage without crowding branches of other trees. Transplant the grafted seedlings if enough leaves are developed. Make a hole enough to place the seedlings. Remove the polybags out of the seedlings to expose his root system.
Be sure that the peripheral roots touches the soil. Cover the hole with soil halfway (temporary) to facilitate watering. The water will slowly seep by the soil underground reaching the root system to have the needed added moisture to start to establish.
Close the hole completely then raised the soil around it to form as a mound. This action is to avoid the water to accumulate and stay longer around the plants especially during rainy days. Watering to the plant should be controlled to avoid soil-borne diseases to formed.
Water the transplanted seedlings 2 to 3 times in the first week. Then reduce the frequency twice for several weeks. Check the condition of the new planted trees. If it needs more water to establish a better firm stand then water the plants as often as needed.
Construct a temporary water ring around the plants, few inches away from the plants just for the purpose of watering. The advantage is that the water is confined only on the water ring. It conserve moisture and avoid wastage of water. It can easily seep underground slowly. Then remove the water ring to form part of the mound.
Subject your land for soil analysis. Determine what kind of soil it has, the pH level of the soil, its soil deficiency. This will be your basis to apply the right kind of fertilizer. If the deficiency is about ammonium sulfate (21-0-0) then fertilize your land following the established schedule: 1/2 cup monthly in the first year of growth, 1 cup per month for the second year and 2 cups per month on the 3rd year. This fertilization is for 1 grafted seedlings only. You have to procure enough ammonium sulfate to be able to serve all mango seedlings in your field.
Scatter the fertilizer few inches away from the plants. Water the plants slowly and thoroughly so that it will seep deeper to the ground. The root systems needed water the early days of their growth.
The watering schedule to the new planted grafted seedlings is these: 2 to 3 times the first week of growth, 1 or twice per week for several weeks. Construct temporary water ring in circle around the plant few inches away. Put water to it. The water will be seep slowly.
The purpose of the water ring is to shield the water from spillage while seeping deeper on the ground. It has advantage to avoid wastage of water. Then return the soil in the water ring to form part of the mound. This is to avoid unwanted holding of water during rainy days. Waterlogging is the favorite place of the soil-borne diseases to proliferate. It is one of the preventive measures for this diseases.
Eliminate all emerging weeds after transplanting to prevent weeds to compete with the plants in getting soil moisture and nutrients. Make periodic cultivation to the vicinity of the plants few feet away to loosen the soil as the tree grows.
If the weeds persist to control the field then its time for you to apply herbicides by spraying. Be sure the end point of your sprayer should be directed directly to the ground and not to the plant. Minimize the mist not to affect the leaves of the plants or they will die. One good protection is to shield the young trees by using polyethylene plastics. It is a good cover to prevent accidental misting to the young plants.
Using organic mulch like rice straw is very helpful to eradicate weeds in the soil and weed seeds to germinate.
Any sign of pests infestation should be observed. Apply the recommended insecticides rate of application to prevent the pests to damage the new leaves of the plants. Powdery mildew is very damaging pests.
Any sign of disease (fungus) contamination should be handled without delay before the disease destroy the flower panicle, twigs and the developing fruits. Apply fungicides following the recommended rate of application.
Pruning is not necessary. Mango tree will form its foliage in natural state without using pruning. The only activity to be made is getting dead small branches and twigs.
The grafted trees will begin to bear fruit in the 3rd year of its growth. The matured trees will produce fruits every year increasing its yield. It only needs 100 to 150 days for the fruits to develop from flowering up to maturity when the fruits are ready to harvest. The best color to commence harvesting is when the skin turned from green to light yellow but not ripe.
The sweetest taste of the mango are those that ripen on the tree. For commerical purpose, mango fruits should not be allowed to ripen in the tree to prevent unmarketable value.