Archive for the ‘harrowing’ Tag
Best to be planted in tropical areas. It has colorful, large and very delicious to eat. It has rounded canopy, low in height, dense foliage upright with branches uniformly structured.
Well-adapted in sub-tropical and lowland tropical environment. Dropping of temperature during rainy season may affect the growth of small branches, twigs and leaves of the plant. If the temperature to drop even more, the flowering and fruiting of the tree will be severely affected and damaged. It can tolerate normal winter season.
Mango tree will grow in its natural state as long as there in good drainage system in the field. Too much water in the soil can be drained out of the field. What remains is the soil moisture enough only on the growing plants. Too much exposure to water will give the soil-borne disease to take advantage and prosper.
The best soil type noted to give mango the liberty to grow unhampered, robust and health if it is sandy loam soil or any other type of soil that has enough organic matter (compost, manure).
The mango tree can tolerate minor flooding in temporary nature. The only weakness of mango tree is soil that is acidic and composition. Its sensitivity to extreme cold put mango to a halt but once the weather condition is good under full sun or during dry season, the tree will recover and kick a new start.
There are many varieties of mango. The best variety grown by commercial growers is carabao mango. It has thin skin, perfectly formed in medium size, the sweetest of all the sweets if fully ripe. It has better eating quality, higher yield and strong sweet aroma. The color will begin to be heavy green then light green and in full maturity (ripe) is yellow. They are susceptible to many soil-borne diseases but it can be controlled as long as action be done immediately to treat the first sign of disease. It is only a matter of management habit to care the plants properly and religiously.
The best propagating materials to raise mango is through grafting. It can be done after there are enough seedling rootstocks from any mango variety whose root system is hard and well-structured.
The first step is to prepare seedling root stocks. Procure seeds from any variety, grow them in the nursery. The seeds were placed in the polybags of enough size. Let them grow until they can attain the required size to become rootstocks. This is then grafted to the scion of the carabao mango until the process of grafting is finish, careful management should be observed until the attachment is fully healed and the scion will start growing new leaves and branches dependent on the rootstocks of other kind of mango.
The advantage of grafted mango is that it can grow fast and beat fruits in earliest possible time. In the planting the seeds as rootstocks, the pit (fibrous stone) should be removed from the seeds. The seeds are planted where in concave edge should be down an inch deep in the potting medium. Use good kinds of soil to avoid stunted growth.
It will germinate two to three weeks. It needs 6 months to have enough grafted seedlings when the diameter of the plant will reach quarter of an inch.
Spacing should be 12 feet x 15 feet between trees to give enough nobility of the trees to have its natural foliage without crowding branches of other trees. Transplant the grafted seedlings if enough leaves are developed. Make a hole enough to place the seedlings. Remove the polybags out of the seedlings to expose his root system.
Be sure that the peripheral roots touches the soil. Cover the hole with soil halfway (temporary) to facilitate watering. The water will slowly seep by the soil underground reaching the root system to have the needed added moisture to start to establish.
Close the hole completely then raised the soil around it to form as a mound. This action is to avoid the water to accumulate and stay longer around the plants especially during rainy days. Watering to the plant should be controlled to avoid soil-borne diseases to formed.
Water the transplanted seedlings 2 to 3 times in the first week. Then reduce the frequency twice for several weeks. Check the condition of the new planted trees. If it needs more water to establish a better firm stand then water the plants as often as needed.
Construct a temporary water ring around the plants, few inches away from the plants just for the purpose of watering. The advantage is that the water is confined only on the water ring. It conserve moisture and avoid wastage of water. It can easily seep underground slowly. Then remove the water ring to form part of the mound.
Subject your land for soil analysis. Determine what kind of soil it has, the pH level of the soil, its soil deficiency. This will be your basis to apply the right kind of fertilizer. If the deficiency is about ammonium sulfate (21-0-0) then fertilize your land following the established schedule: 1/2 cup monthly in the first year of growth, 1 cup per month for the second year and 2 cups per month on the 3rd year. This fertilization is for 1 grafted seedlings only. You have to procure enough ammonium sulfate to be able to serve all mango seedlings in your field.
Scatter the fertilizer few inches away from the plants. Water the plants slowly and thoroughly so that it will seep deeper to the ground. The root systems needed water the early days of their growth.
The watering schedule to the new planted grafted seedlings is these: 2 to 3 times the first week of growth, 1 or twice per week for several weeks. Construct temporary water ring in circle around the plant few inches away. Put water to it. The water will be seep slowly.
The purpose of the water ring is to shield the water from spillage while seeping deeper on the ground. It has advantage to avoid wastage of water. Then return the soil in the water ring to form part of the mound. This is to avoid unwanted holding of water during rainy days. Waterlogging is the favorite place of the soil-borne diseases to proliferate. It is one of the preventive measures for this diseases.
Eliminate all emerging weeds after transplanting to prevent weeds to compete with the plants in getting soil moisture and nutrients. Make periodic cultivation to the vicinity of the plants few feet away to loosen the soil as the tree grows.
If the weeds persist to control the field then its time for you to apply herbicides by spraying. Be sure the end point of your sprayer should be directed directly to the ground and not to the plant. Minimize the mist not to affect the leaves of the plants or they will die. One good protection is to shield the young trees by using polyethylene plastics. It is a good cover to prevent accidental misting to the young plants.
Using organic mulch like rice straw is very helpful to eradicate weeds in the soil and weed seeds to germinate.
Any sign of pests infestation should be observed. Apply the recommended insecticides rate of application to prevent the pests to damage the new leaves of the plants. Powdery mildew is very damaging pests.
Any sign of disease (fungus) contamination should be handled without delay before the disease destroy the flower panicle, twigs and the developing fruits. Apply fungicides following the recommended rate of application.
Pruning is not necessary. Mango tree will form its foliage in natural state without using pruning. The only activity to be made is getting dead small branches and twigs.
The grafted trees will begin to bear fruit in the 3rd year of its growth. The matured trees will produce fruits every year increasing its yield. It only needs 100 to 150 days for the fruits to develop from flowering up to maturity when the fruits are ready to harvest. The best color to commence harvesting is when the skin turned from green to light yellow but not ripe.
The sweetest taste of the mango are those that ripen on the tree. For commerical purpose, mango fruits should not be allowed to ripen in the tree to prevent unmarketable value.
There are many varieties of sugarcane. Select a variety that can give better productivity during the crop season. It is also important that the variety you choose is a drought-resistant variety.
Have a good planting materials. Carefully select only those with good quality cane points. It should be a fresh cut. Do not use planting materials that you found to be diseased, very thin, over-aged and some sign of damaged to the cane.
All cuttings of cane points should be treated with fungicides 2 days after to control the disease that will emerge during the growing period. A ratoon cane is more tolerant to dry season because it uses the root system of the preceding cropping to have the necessary moisture for the soil in the first few months of its growth.
If you select a deep-rooting planting. Plow the field deep up to 45 centimeters to break or loosen the soil. Plant the cane points immediately after plowing to minimize the loss of moisture in the soil. Harrow the field, make furrows and start planting. Don’t allow the plowed field to be exposed to the sun while waiting for the schedule planting. It should be done immediately and promptly.
Any leaf-over grass and other trash materials in the field from previous cropping should not be burn. This will form part as organic materials when decayed. This is to improve fertility of the soil and its soil composition.
While preparing the land, mix cane trash with the soil during the plowing. Incorporate all other waste cane materials like bagasse that started to decompose and organic manure (animal) to improve soil’s ability to hold enough moisture in the soil.
Mulch ratoon with cane trash materials. It helps to reduce loss of moisture through evaporation. In order to have an immediate germination of cane points, plant if there’s enough moisture in the soil especially during occasional raining. It is good to prepare the land and planting activities during the period of wet condition so that enough water can be absorb by the field. If irrigation is needed, do as necessary.
Limit your plant density according to the allowed space distance. Increasing density of the plants will only lead to competition in getting moisture in the soil. Plat the cane points deeply. Place the canes horizontally in deep furrows 30 centimeters from the top of the ridge to the bottom of the furrow. Cover it with fine soil 15 centimeters deep and compact the soil.
Apply basal fertilizer by broadcasting at the bottom of the furrows based on schedule. Don’t apply 100% of fertilizer requirements during planting. Share only part of such requirement. Follow the schedule of basal application.
For ratoon cane basal fertilizer application, it should be done along the cane row to cover the fertilizer with soil application can be done even if the soil is dry. Top dress the plant only if soil moisture is enough for cane growth.
Minimize tillage of the soil to avoid moisture loss but frequent inter-row cultivation may help to improve moisture of the soil. Proper weed control minimize moisture loose in the soil. Use chemical herbicides in addition to manual weeding to assure that the plants will grow solely without any competition.
Hill up the soil along the cane row. This is to cover the applied fertilizer with soil. During drought period, you should have enough irrigation equipment to do the flooding and sprinkling. You can use drip irrigation to restore rapid water loss due to drought.
A perennial herb cultivated as an annual or biennial. It has a small, elongated bulb. It grow slender, elongated pseudostem forming vigorous clump. Suited in a temperature without too much cold or heat or excessive rainfall.
Use seeds as planting materials. Prepare seedbeds of 1 meter. Mix the soil of animal manure, rice hull in the seedbed. The seedbed should be 1 meter wide. The rice straw above the seedbed is one way to control harmful micro-organisms by burning.
Line sow 3-4 kilograms seeds in rows set across the bed 5 centimeter apart. Distribute seeds lightly with compost. Mulch the area with cogon grass or rice straw to maintain and conserve moisture in the soil. Don’t water the plants in the seedbed too much. Protect the seedbed from direct heat of the sun or heavy rain by using plastic sheets or nylon nets. Protect the plants by using temporary shade against sunlight.
Plow and harrow the land 3 times. Harrow it crosswise to remove all weed seeds and existing weeds from the field. One month before land preparation, apply 30 centimeters layer of rice hull to the entire field. After 2 weeks, burn it. Mix soil with the burnt hull during plowing and harrowing.
With burnt hull, it reduces the occurrence of diseases and weeds. It also improve the soil composition adding fertility to the soil. Apply 10 tons of animal manure to the land before bed preparation. Fertilize it according to its soil requirements. Mulch with rice straw before transplanting.
Water the seedbed thoroughly to soften the soil easy to uproot the seedling to avoid the root to be damage. The field need 7 bags of complete fertilizer (14-14-14) as basal fertilizer. Trim top portion of the leaves before transplanting to reduce transpiration and great chance of plant’s survival.
Transplant the seeds to the field at the distance of 15 centimeters. Use marker to determine the correct spacing. Use point object to make holes. Plant it deeply to protect the root system. Press the soil lightly to compact it to protect the stem of the plant. Protect the basal portion of the plants. Ensure that the root of the plant is in contact with the soil. Irrigate the plants before and after the transplanting.
Apply the soil with 3 bags of urea (46-0-0) 3 weeks after transplanting. Repeat application 2 weeks from the first application especially if the soil is very low.
Irrigate the soil regularly to give adequate moisture to the soil to make the plants to have a healthy growth. During dry season, watering the plant is urgently needed.
Purple blotch and downy mildew is the common disease of the plant. Take appropriate measures for its prevention.
-Irrigate properly to control excess humidity.
-Remove all decayed plant materials from previous cropping.
-Remove all infected leaves to stop contamination.
-In every planting season, alternate with crop rotation.
-Spray with compost tea, a fermenting compost of 14 days then spray to control foliar disease.
-Practice strict sanitation and cultivation.
The control of pests can be done by spreading rice hull ash to the field. You can also spray hot pepper extract. If infestation is severe, spray it with commercial fertilizer.
Harvest the plants 2-1/2 months after planting.
Black pepper is a long climbing shrub. A stem with aerial roots at the swollen nodes. The flowers are white and spike. It has a hanging spikes 4 to 12 cm long. It has a color of dull green. It turned into red when ripe or in maturity stage. If already dry, the ripe berries will be black and wrinkled. It has leaves that are ovate, pointed,thick and green. It has many cultivars depending on the places of production and location.
It can be grown anywhere in all types of soil. Suitable in loam soil that are well-drained with warm humid climate.
Black pepper can be raised through propagation by seeds or stem cutting. Planting materials through cuttings is most popular because it can be raised easily and fast.
Prepare an area for your black pepper production. Plow and harrow the land thoroughly 2 times to loosen the soil. You need stake support posts for the clinging vines. Plant it at the distance of 2.5 meters x 2.5 meters apart. You can use bamboo poles or other hardwood trees.
Use a distance of 30 cm for the erected post. Put 2 seedlings opposite to each other. To compact the soil, to prevent exposure of roots and prevention of weeds around the plants, cultivate the land as necessary. This is part of the maintenance work to ensure that the plants will grow healthy and bear berries early.
Monitor the growth of the plants. When the seedling reach the height of 1 to 2 feet high, nip off the tips of the vines to induce branching. Nipping of the vines will stop when it reaches to the top of the posts.
Remove any unnecessary branches to give chances of the lateral branches to grow on the main vines. Continue pruning by removing unproductive branches. Apply fertilizer to areas in your growing plants with poor soil. This is needed for its capability to grow fast. Use complete fertilizer (14-14-14):
100 grams – after 6 months
200 grams – after 1 year
600 grams – after 2 years
Use leaves of trees to serve as mulching. Spread it on the surface of the soil. This is the alternate option to further fertilize the soil to have enough nitrogen. Apply pest control immediately for any visible sign of population of nymphs and blue hopper or other insects that feed their young with leaves and young stem. Use contact insecticides at the applicable rate of 1 tablespoon for 1 gallon of water.
If mealy bugs started attacking the young leaves and young berries spray it at the rate of 3 teaspoons per 5 gallons of water.
Control infection of plant diseases like powdery mildew and anthracnose during rainy seasons when humidity to the soil is high. This infection will start at the tip of the leaves by drying out, the leaves will drop early. One way of control is to remove all infected plants and burn it.
The presence of virus to the plants is indicated in the clearing of the leaf veins where the leaves become thickened, undersized, mottled and deformed and stunted leaves. There will be a premature death of the plants if the root system is damage and become rotten due to high humidity. The only solution to avoid the damage of the root is to soak the seedlings in a 2 tablespoons of fungicides before planting to designated areas.
Harvest only those spikes when the peppercorn become cherry red, or from dark green to shiny yellowish green. Twist the spike in one hand while the other hand is holding the peduncle. The spikes be placed in an open container. Using baskets or sacks will do. Harvest only during dry weather to avoid damaging the berries. Harvest once a week.
Place the ripe berries on the mats in preparation for sun-drying. To have a uniform dryness, turned the berries frequently in 3 hours of drying. As soon as the berries become black, it can now be threshed, winnowed. The clean berries will be stored in an ideal airtight container free from foreign materials or to become moist. Keep it dry at all times to avoid molds to affect the pureness of the peppercorn.
Look for an ideal place to plant your bitter gourd. The field should be plowed and harrowed twice to pulverize and level the soil. If the result of the soil analysis indicated lower than 5.8, you have to apply lime one month before sowing the seeds. The rate should be between 1,000 to 3,000 kilos per hectare.
Before sowing the seeds, soaked it in tap water overnight and keep it in the moist cloth up to 4 days.
In order to conserve moisture in the soil, plastic mulch is the answer. This materials is to cover the beds in the field. You have to punch a hole in the plastic sheet based on the planting distance of 50 centimeters between plants in the row and 3 meters between rows.
The advantages of using plastic mulch is that it can prevent seepage of too much water into the plants during rainy season easing mortality rate of the plants. It will preserve moisture in the soil during dry season. With plastic mulch, it serves as repellent to insects hiding under the leaves. It becomes effective especially if the sunlight reflects directly to the plastic mulch. Application of fertilizer will be preserve from leeching as the plastic mulch becomes a barrier. One important aspect of prevention by using mulching is to be free from soil erosion.
Use plastic mulch by stretching it over the plant beds. Hold the edges down by using thin bamboo slats stapled into the soil every 20 centimeters distance.
Sow the pre-germinated seeds to a deep of 2 centimeters. Put one seed per hill. Another option is to use seedlings in the plastic bags. If the seedlings is ready in 15 days then do the transplanting. To protect the seeds sown in plastic bags, it should be sprayed with insecticides. Plant the seeds in the cellophane bag with the measurement of 4 inches in height and 2.5 inches in diameters. Use mixture of soil (sand, garden soil).
Whatever will be your choice, either by direct seeding or transplanting, the growth of the plant will depend on the use of fertilizer. Use organic fertilizer (manure and compost) to the field. The rate should be 10 tons per hectare. Put fertilizer in the hills of the plants or in the planting rows. Mixed it with the soil in the field.
By using seeds, 10 days after emerging from the soil, apply 10 bags of complete fertilizer (14-14-14) per hectare. Use 20 grams of the fertilizer per hill. The fertilizer should be 10 centimeter distance from the base of the plant. Be sure to cover it with soil.
After 3 weeks of emergence, sidedress it with 2 bags of urea (46-0-0) per hectare or 20 grams per hill. Sidedress it every 3 weeks.
As ampalaya is a climbing vines, trellising is an important object in the life of the plant. Put trellis when the plants is already 15 centimeters high. The trellis should be 6 feet high. Use hardwood trees as main post of the trellis. It should be buried 2 feet under the soil. Make interconnection from one post to the other by the use of GI wires. It should be a secondary support (brace) of the post to make it firm and avoid to collapse from the weight of clinging vines.Use fish nets as your side trellis or for overhead trellis. Tie it to the GI wires.
For better growth and development of the plants don’t allow the plants lacking the needed water. A canal is helpful is to avoid water logging. The plants should be in a raised beds when using a furrow irrigation especially during dry season. With furrow irrigation, any excess water can be drain out from the field and plants. Irrigation should be done every 5 days.
Application of insecticides and fungicides is a must. Some insects lay their eggs on the leaves of the plants or to young fruits. When the eggs become a worm, it started eating the plants. If left unchecked and without any prevention the result is that the fruits become deformed. There will be a hole inside the fruits, yellowing prematurely due to infestation. Apply insecticides under manufacturer’s requirements. Spray it during the night when insects were feasting with the plants.
But if you want that the plants is pesticide-free then wrapping the young fruits with newspaper or using plastic bags is the safest way.
The same attention should be given when disease attack the plants. If they are not prevented with the most effective fungicides there will be a reduced yield and unhealthy plants.
Mungbean can be grown in a balance distribution of weather (wet and dry). It can be planted whole-year round. Mungbean cannot give good yield if it falls on continues wet season or in the period of drought especially during its flowering and pod development.
It can be planted in any types of soil. A deep and well-drained fertile soil with a pH of 6.0 is most favorable although mungbean can grow in an acidic soil but the only problem is that it affect the growth of root module bacteria because of the absence of essential nutrients.
Prepare the land thoroughly. Plow and harrow twice. Do four passing in one harrowing. A furrow of 75 centimeters is needed. This is in preparation for dry and wet season. Before planting the seeds, be sure to inoculate it properly using 100 grams of inoculant in 6 kilos of mungbean seeds. Add a little water to the seed and mix it with the inoculant. Coat them thoroughly. Do this before planting. Avoid the seeds to be expose to sunlight.
Planting rows in the space of 50-70 centimeters. Use 30 seeds per linear meter. You need 25 kilograms of seeds in one hectare. Fertilize the plant in the ratio of 30-30-30 kilograms of N,P,K per hectare or 4 bags of complete fertilizer (14-14-14) during planting and sidedressing when the seeds emerge after the period of one week.
During dry season, the plants need enough water. Irrigate the plants during the flowering and pod development. In severe drought, mulch the plants with rice straw in order to conserve moisture.
Remove all weeds in the field 2 weeks after the seedling emerge. Hand weeding is best to use. Hill-up the soil around the plants from 3-4 weeks.
Aphids and leafhoppers are the most notorious insect pests in the life of mungbean seedlings. White pod borer is the pest during the flowering to podding. The attack of this pests cause the flower to drop early reducing the development of seeds. Failed to develop pods was due to insect damage produces low quality seeds. Application of insecticides can control the insect populations in the field.
A powdery mildew can seriously damage the plants in the field. The soil-borne pathogen is common during wet season. Once the roots is affected the plants slowly dies during high humidity and very cool temperature. The use of fungicide will help to control its spread.
Harvest the plants if the pod almost fully mature. If 80% of the pods dried fully, harvest the pods by hands. The first harvest should be done 60 days from planting. Harvest again after 15 days after the first harvest.
Dry the harvested pods in the sun. If mechanical thresher is available, threshing the pod is easy and fast. Beating the pod by using sticks inside a jute sacks can also be used. Dry the threshed seeds 3 days with moisture content of 12% to be able to store the seeds longer in your storehouse.